The standardized test--an educational tool.
Publication date 1961
Publisher University of Kansas City and Calvin Productions
Digitizing sponsor Internet Archive
Contributor Internet Archive
Shows how an eighth grade teacher adjusts her teaching to the reading skills of her students after using a standardized group test to obtain information about their skills. Discusses the criteria used in the selection of an appropriate test, the administration of the test, the reliability of a test, and the interpretation of the results
Ocr Not. A. Good. Morning to all of us children and grownups sized up others and with the jobs to be done. Every day each one of us comes in contact with many different kinds of people. We observe them react to that we make judgments about the make judgments about us. This girl is really attractive. He certainly pretty certain sound. Recommendations are good. I think she'll sit in OK If she's interested in the salary we can offer. I'll hire. And grabby found afterwards. We think he's the best pediatrician. He's certainly done wonders for Janey's our team. Our evaluations of others are usually informal but some situation. Require objective systematic assessment of abilities or aptitudes. In the classroom. Informal evaluations are useful but the teacher also needs more reliable assessments of each child's abilities and achievements to help or adapt her teaching to each particular group of students. This eighth grade class in the year ahead. Faces subject matter more varied and complex and they have had before the nature of the work they will be expected to do were put in crease demands on their ability to read. Miss Wilcox wonders is the class for candy Larry. Readings each child which of them will require special help in developing the skills he will need. Her observations and classroom quizzes over a period of time would give her some clues but now at the beginning of the year is the time when such information is most useful to her. Students permanent cumulated records are helpful they contain a history of each child's progress in school including the results of standardized tests the ability of this class to use reading as a learning tool at the eighth grade level has not been assessed. A standardized test used under controlled conditions can help Miss Wilcox identify students with reading problems and indicate students who may need additional testing for a more thorough diagnosis of reading difficulties. A member of tests are available to. Miss Wilcox must choose from them the one test which will best meet her objectives. As a first step in selection. Miss Wilcox defines are objective in testing. Just what is it that she needs to know about her students' reading ability. Then she can go on to examination of the test itself. Does the cost that the school budget. Case you give the test conveniently in the fifty minute class period. Can't you score the test by hand and by herself. No special equipment or outside help will be available to or. Are you quibbling forms of a little in case. Retesting is the. Technical considerations are important to intelligence selection news of tests of these the most important our reliability. Belatedly and the norming group. How accurate is the measure. We can measure John's height with a variety of devices. Some are more accurate than others. We must also be aware that there are possible errors in the various tests that we use in the classroom. Reliability refers to the accuracy of the measure. John is the tallest student in his class will also be found to be the brightest you. Let's look at their grade averages. Measurement of height cannot be used to make a valid prediction of success as a student. This can be done only with an instrument which is valid for the purpose of measuring Scholastic Aptitude in considering validity it is necessary to ask whether the test actually measures but it. Professes to measure. The norming group is a comparison group it is the basis for interpreting test scores say that a particular test has been standardized on a group of students. Predominately urban low income foreign population may. The group of students to be tested least suburban middle income level with Anglo Saxon background and with boys and girls equally represented. A test with such a norm in group would not be suitable for use with this group of students since the two should have comparable characteristics. These technical considerations affect the usefulness of an instrument for particular groups of students. Acceptable criteria for reliability. The liturgy and Norm groups must be applied in Test selection. It is to the teachers at that age to secure professional advice whenever possible. However a teacher does not have to be a measurement specialist to put these criteria to use in selecting an appropriate test. Each standardized test is accompanied by a manual getting detailed information about the test. Reviews of tests and reports on their use. I've printed in professional journals and bulletins. An excellent source of professional critiques of individual tests is Burroughs mental measurement yearbook. But these aids to selection Miss Wilcox chooses the test which will best indicate each student's ability to handle the increased demands on his reading skills. Before giving the test. Miss Wilcox studies the directions in the manual to be sure she understands them. It is essential to follow the standard procedure. Miss Wilcox takes the test yourself in order to become thoroughly familiar with she allows herself exactly the time specified. Test taking may also be used as a step in choosing a text. In announcing the test. Miss Wilcox tries to calm any fears or tires may have about test taking. You know this year you're going to be doing more reading than you've ever had to do before and you're going to be reading for different purposes to because you'll be doing independent research and individual projects this year we're going to be studying western civilization and you will be using reference books and all kinds of resources. Now naturally this isn't going to be this is going to be more difficult for some of you than for others it would be very helpful to us if we knew what kind of help each of you is going to need. So in order to learn more about that I planned to give you a test which is been used to are exactly the same purpose by many other eighth grade classes similar to ours. Students should understand the purpose of testing and the nature of the test. What should we started to get ready for this test. But George this really isn't the kind of a test that you can study for and you'll not be graded on it in the same way as you are on our regular class tests and quizzes. Your scores will be used to help us plan this years work not to find out if someone is passing or failing. What kind of questions are you going to ask us. All of the questions are objective question this is a printed test but we'll talk more about that just before you take it. I plan to give a tomorrow during our regular class period so it's very important that you will be here. Your own need to bring with you to Class A good sharp pants off but I'll have the other things that you need. Next day everything is ready and waiting before the students arrive. Room comfort is provided for seats are spaced apart. Any distraction that might affect test results should be eliminated. Please print your name on the line at the left side of the answer he then fill in the other items of information that are called for. Read the directions on both the answer sheet and the cover of the booklet but do not write on the book Blood and do not open the booklet to the test itself until I tell you to do so in taking this test you Miss Wilcox follows the directions in the test manual to the letter to ensure that the test is given under standard conditions. But she answers the student's questions no sense according to the directions. No questions may be asked after the test begins. Let me show you on the board. There are five pair so the lines. If you think the thirty make certain that everyone understands how to mark the answer sheets do you understand. Are there any other question. Remember you are not expected to answer all the quit. Students in any part within the time limit but if you sit in a speech for time it's called go on to the next part if you've been a star last part before time is called. You may go back and work on any earlier part do not start until I tell you to begin. This Wilcox allows exactly the time specified for the test. Ready to stand. Any deviation in the standard testing procedure may alter the results and make them useless or misleading for the intended purpose. Miss Wilcox watches for anything out of the ordinary. Billy is not well and Miss Wilcox decides it would be best to send him to the school nurse. Later on she will give him the alternate form of attempts. No test is infallible and no single test can give a complete picture of a student tests should be used carefully and objective Lee and with understanding of what they can and cannot do. In scoring as in other steps in testing it is essential to follow the standard procedure. Scoring may seem like a routine clerical chore but it must be done carefully and accurately and with professional attention. Miss Wilcox will rescore the tests to be sure she has not made any mistakes. Every test has a stated formula for finding the raw scores it may be just the right answers or the rights minus the wrongs or the rights minus a fraction of the wrong. For this test the formula is the right minus one fourth of the wrong the fraction is a correction for guessing. If Mary answers a total of forty five items and thirty seven responses were correct and eight were wrong wrong score is thirty five. Raw scores are next converted to scaled scores. Scale scores are Naidu interpretation of test results. They put this class and the national norm group on a common scale and make it possible to perform various arithmetic computations which are necessary. Interpretation. You scaled scores Miss Wilcox ranks or pass in order first for vocabulary she determines the range of scores from highest to lowest. She identifies the median score the number of students who scored above this point is equal to the number who scored below she also determines the mean score the arithmetic average of all scores. Converting the scale scores to percentile ranks following directions given in the manual makes it possible for Miss Wilcox to compare her class with the norm group. Alfred score is forty three he has a percentile rank of sixty six This means that he did better on the test than sixty six percent of the students in the norm group. Other tests may use different ways of converting and using scores grade equivalent. So sometimes you have relatively high score for a seventh grade student. Maybe a relatively low score for an eighth grade student. Scores can be charted graphically to show their distribution. Most of the scores are grouped around the mean with fewer scores toward the high and low and. Scores of a single small class would not show a smooth distribution and may not show a normal distribution. Business Wilcox could test and chart enough cases the curve would smooth out into a normal distribution. If the distribution has looked like this Miss Wilcox with know that for some reason this test was not suitable for her group. It might have been too easy or she might have a large number of superior students in comparison to the norm group. A distribution like this might indicate too difficult a test or an unusually large number of snow students. Miss Wilcox can determine where her class stands in relation to eighth grade classes in general by comparing them to the national distribution. The norm is a reference point for comparison not a standard of performance. Local norms can be built up over a period of time as groups of students are given the same test. This offers greater assurance that the class is being compared to a really comparable group. Comparing the class to the group in which it is drawn. Allows it in effect to be compared to itself. Each of these individual scores really represents a possible range of scores. Says it is not possible to eliminate all sources of error in the test and in the testing procedure. The standard error for this test is stated in the manual to be three with a score of forty seven and the standard error of three. We would be correct. Two thirds of the time in saying that the students true score falls between forty four and fifty. From the test results. Miss Wilcox expects that this group of students a large part of the class but I have no particular difficulty with regular password. Even so as she works with the students through the year. Miss Wilcox will be alert to catch any reading problems that may appear. This group can be expected to handle more advanced reading material and independent projects. Superior students deserve special provisions for work that will challenge them but even this appear your student may require help in developing particular reading skills. In a low scoring group of a riot here factors leading to a low score may be at work. Charles scored low but on the basis of his recorded past performance and Scholastic Aptitude Mrs Wilcox feels that this is about what he could be expected to achieve. She helps him find reading material that is suited to his capacity. Age and level of maturity. Bike all students Charles needs a satisfactory school experience and incentive to develop up to this potential. Helen scored high on vocabulary and low on reading comprehension. Additional testing is indicated to locate possible causes and help Mrs Wilcox plan remedial work for. Observations of John in class and information about him and his can relate a record. Jeff that is poor reading performance may be due to problems outside the classroom. Miss Wilcox feels that he needs more concentrated assistance than she can get. She refers John to the school guidance counselor for specialized attention and help. Miss Wilcox keeps a record other students scores for her own use and guidance through the coming school year. Test results are also entered in each student's record for use by other school personnel. Careful selection interpretation and use of a suitable standardized test has made it possible for Miss Wilcox to assess each of her students' ability to use reading as a Learning to the knowledge she has gained makes it possible for her to tailor the instructional program to fit the students the standardized test is a technical tool which every teacher should understand and be confident to you.
Run time 21:43
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Reviewer: JungleJane25 - - April 14, 2016
Subject: High rez master and licensing question for uploader
Subject: High rez master and licensing question for uploader
I am working on a non-profit documentary and wondering if there is a chance of getting a high resolution master or some clips in this item (by Calvin Productions) and Visual Perception and Failure to Learn (Churchill Films) and paying a licensing fee. Please respond to this review page. Many thanks, Jane